中国地热资源
投稿时间:2016-12-26  修订日期:2017-05-08  点此下载全文
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作者单位E-mail
王贵玲 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所 guilingw@163.com 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(编号:41302189)
中文摘要:中国地热资源分布广泛,资源种类繁多,分布具有明显的规律性和地带性。针对中国不同类型的地热资源,采用不同的评价方法分别对浅层地温能、水热型地热资源和干热岩资源进行了潜力评估,并对地热资源的开发利用现状及地热资源开发利用的经济环境效益进行了分析。我国地热资源量相对较为丰富,出露温泉2334处,地热开采井5818眼。水热型地热资源量折合标准煤12500亿吨,每年可开采量折合标准煤18.65亿吨;336个地级以上城市浅层地温能资源每年可开采量折合标准煤7亿吨;干热岩远景资源量折合标准煤856万亿吨。目前我国地热资源每年利用量折合标准煤0.21亿吨,其中水热型地热资源开采程度仅为0.2%,浅层地温能开采程度仅为2.3%,地热资源开发利用潜力巨大。在现有技术条件下科学开发利用地热资源,每年可节煤10亿吨,其中336个地级以上城市浅层地温能资源高效利用每年可节煤2.5亿吨;地下热水资源高效利用每年可节煤7.5亿吨,地热资源节能减排效果显著,能有效缓解雾霾。
中文关键词:浅层地温能  水热型地热资源  干热岩
 
Geothermal resources in China
Abstract:China’s geothermal resources are widely distributed and they feature multiple types. They are distributed with obvious patterns and along certain geographies. Based on China’s geothermal resources of different types, this paper assesses the potential of shallow geothermal resources, geothermal resources of hydrothermal type and geothermal resource of hot dry rocks type and analyzes the their exploitation and utilization status as well as the economic and environmental benefit of geothermal resources. China’s geothermal resources are relevantly abundant with 2,334 hot springs and 5,818 geothermal exploitation wells. Geothermal resources of hydrothermal type are equivalent to 1.25 trillion tons standard coal. Annual exploitable amount is equivalent to 1.865 billion tons standard coal. The annual exploitable shallow geothermal resources of 336 cities above prefecture-levels are equivalent to 700 million tons of standard coal. The amount of hot dry rocks of prospective areas is equivalent to 856 trillion tons of standard coal. Currently, China’s annual utilization of geothermal resources is equivalent to 21 million tons, of which only 0.2% geothermal resources of hydrothermal type and only 2.3% of shallow geothermal resources are exploited. Therefore, geothermal resources have a tremendous exploitation and utilization potential. Thanks to the existing technology, scientific exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources can save 1 billion tons of coal annually. The efficient utilization of shallow geothermal resources in 336 cities above prefecture-levels can save 250 million tons of coal annually. The efficient utilization of underground geothermal resources can save 750 million tons of coal annually. Geothermal resources can efficiently cut emissions and save energy. They can also effectively reduce dust haze.
keywords:shallow geothermal resources  geothermal resources of hydrothermal type  hot dry rocks
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