地质标本数字化实践研究新进展、问题与展望
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引用本文:杨良锋,孙韬,赵宏雷,卢立伍,王伟,曹希平,陈晓雯,耿竹南.2017.地质标本数字化实践研究新进展、问题与展望[J].地球学报,38(2):278-288.
DOI:10.3975/cagsb.2017.02.22
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作者单位E-mail
杨良锋 中国地质博物馆 yang_liangfeng@hotmail.com 
孙韬 中国科学院电子学研究所 空间信息处理与应用系统技术重点实验室  
赵宏雷 国土资源航空物探遥感中心  
卢立伍 中国地质博物馆  
王伟 北京文博远大数字技术有限公司  
曹希平 中国地质博物馆  
陈晓雯 中国地质博物馆  
耿竹南 中国地质博物馆  
基金项目:国土资源部公益性行业科研专项经费(编号: 201011003);国土资源部部门预算项目(编号: 1211131181003);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(编号: 121201010331404; 1212011220038);数字国土工程项目(编号: 8S03)
中文摘要:地质标本作为地质历史和地学研究的见证物, 是地质生产、研究与教学的核心材料和基础资源, 是博物馆的立馆之本、服务之基, 更是博物馆数字化的重点和难点。本文通过回顾总结中国地质博物馆十多年的数字化实践, 以及横向对比国内外博物馆领域的数字化工作基础上, 并结合测绘、光谱等领域的最新进展, 进一步明确了数字标本的概念, 数字标本的来源不局限于对现有标本的数字化, 可超越传统标本尺度空间的限制, 直接到标本采集点面向地质体进行无损采集, 从而极大地开展标本采集、典藏、研究与科学传播工作。利用环拍-摄影测量法、矩阵拍摄法、拼接拍摄法等方法, 对地质体进行大尺度的数字采集、后期加工形成数字地质体, 因其具有地质体野外产出的空间关系、纹理特征、质地色泽等视觉特征, 等同于在虚拟空间中再现了野外地质体, 实现了地质体的数字化典藏, 随着数字地质体的量的积累, 孤立的地质体连成片, 理论上讲可以实现典藏地壳。数字地质体不仅具有对已有地质体的数字化保护意义, 而且具有科研、科普价值。自主研制的地质标本三维影像获取系统基本上解决了地质标本三维数字化存在的表面纹理信息清晰度低、高光材质及透明材质效果差、后期人工干预工作繁琐与艰巨这三个关键问题。最后, 指出了当前数字标本正经历着由三维到多维的蝉变, 综合分析了现代信息提取技术获取蕴藏在实体地质标本中专业信息的可行性, 展望了多维数字标本实现的技术手段及其应用前景。
中文关键词:数字标本  数字地质体  数字技术  摄影测量  地质标本  地质体  博物馆
 
Digitization of Geological Specimens: Progress, Existing Problems,and Prospect
Abstract:Geological samples, as the witness of the geological history and geological study, are the core materials and basic resources of the geological production, research and teaching, the foundation of the museum and its public service, and also the focus and difficulty of the museum digitization. Based on the review and summary of more than 10 years’ digitization practice conducted by the Geological Museum of China, a comparative study of the museum digitization work both in China and abroad, and an investigation of the latest progress in the fields of geomatics and spectroscopy, the authors put forward the clear connotation and denotation of digital specimen. The source of digital specimen is not merely confined to the digitization of collected samples, but extends beyond the limitations of the scale and space of traditional samples. It can be non-destructive acquisition via photogrammetry and direct scanning of the geological body at the sampling site, and thus it can carry out sample collection, archiving, research and scientific dissemination on a large scale. The digital geological body is reconstructed through large-scale digital acquisition and post processing of geological body by methods of rotation shooting-photogrammetry, matrix photography and mesh photography. Because of its visual features of geological body in the field including spatial relation, stripe characteristic, texture, color and luster, the digital geological body is equivalent to recreating the field geological body in virtual space, and can realize the digital archiving of the geological body. With the quantitative accumulation of digital geological bodies, isolated geological bodies can be connected with each other so that archiving the crust can be theoretically realized. The digital geological bodies have not only the significance of protecting the existing digital geological body but also the value of research and science. Self-developed 3D Image Acquisition System for Geological Samples basically solves three key problems existent in 3D digitization of geological samples, which are the low resolution of the surface texture information, the poor result of high glossy materials and transparent materials, the complicated and arduous manual intervention during post processing. At the end, this paper points out that currently digital specimen is going through the evolution from three dimensions to multi dimensions, comprehensively analyzes the possibility of acquiring professional information from real geological samples by modern information extraction technology, and forecasts the technical means for multi-dimensional realization of digital specimen and its application prospect.
keywords:digital specimen  digital geological body  digital technique  photogrammetry  geological specimen  geologic body  museum
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