福建寿山石的矿床矿物学特征研究
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引用本文:董晋琨,杜杨松.2017.福建寿山石的矿床矿物学特征研究[J].地球学报,38(2):208-222.
DOI:10.3975/cagsb.2017.02.13
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作者单位E-mail
董晋琨 中国地质博物馆 emerald0511@163.com 
杜杨松 中国地质大学(北京) duys5510@cugb.edu.cn 
基金项目:国土资源部地质矿产评价专项(编号: 1212011220038)
中文摘要:寿山石是一种以黏土矿物为主要成分的用于工艺美术雕刻、印章篆刻的玉石, 因主要产于福建省寿山而得名。本文在野外地质调查的基础上, 通过肉眼、偏光显微镜和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)的观察以及电子探针、X射线粉晶衍射、红外光谱和差热等分析手段, 对福建寿山石各矿床的主要矿石的类型及其特征、矿石的主要组成矿物、显微结构及其晶体结构特征等方面进行深入研究。根据对高山、旗降、峨嵋、月尾四个寿山石矿床矿石的成分分析, 将寿山石原生矿石分为迪开石型、高岭石型、叶蜡石型和伊利石型四种主要类型。寿山石的结构主要有显微隐晶、显微隐晶-微晶、显微微晶结构。高山矿石由纯净的有序迪开石组成, 峨嵋矿石由纯净的2M型叶蜡石组成, 部分月尾矿石由纯净的2M1型伊利石组成, 旗降矿石以有序高岭石为主, 含有少量迪开石或高岭石-迪开石的过渡矿物, 部分旗降矿石以2M型叶蜡石为主, 含有少量高岭石。根据矿床地质产状、矿石结构、矿物共生组合等特征分析, 寿山石的成矿环境为还原环境, 属于热液蚀变成因。
中文关键词:迪开石  高岭石  叶蜡石  伊利石  矿物学特征  寿山石矿床  福建
 
A Study of Mineralogical Characteristics of Larderite Deposits in Fujian Province
Abstract:Larderite, also known as “Shoushan Stone” in China, is named after Shoushan, a mountain located in Fujian Province, where most larderites are mined. Belonging to the category of jade rocks and mainly consisting of clay minerals, larderite can be used to make art engravings and seal cutting stamps. Based on field geological investigation, naked eye observation, micropolariscope observation, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy analysis and DSC technology, the authors studied the types and characteristics of larderite in Shoushan area of Fujian Province as well as its primary mineral composition, microstructure, and crystal texture. According to the component analysis of larderite deposits of Gaoshan, Qijiang, Emei and Yuewei, there are four main types of larderite deposits (primary ore), i.e., dickite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, and illite. The main textures of larderite are microaphanitic, microaphanitic-microcrystallite, and microcrystallite structure. Gaoshan stone is made of pure and ordered dickite. Emei stone is made of pure 2M type pyrophyllite, while some of Yuewei stones are made of 2M1 type illite. Qijiang stone mainly consists of ordered kaolin, which contains a few kaolin-dickite intergradient minerals. Some of Qijiang stones are made of 2M type pyrophyllite, which contains a few kaolin minerals. Based on the feature analysis of geological occurrence of mineral deposits, ore textures and mineral assemblages, the authors hold that larderite was formed through hydrothermal alteration in a reducing metallogenic environment.
keywords:dickite  kaolinite  pyrophyllite  illite  mineralogical characteristics  larderite deposite  Fujian Province
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